Dormir Bien

El placer de dormir bien

¿Por qué necesitamos dormir?
Durante las etapas del sueño, el ser humano sufre una serie de cambios fisiológicos únicos y fundamentales. Si hay algún tipo de anormalidad, se pueden gatillar una serie de malestares (ver recuadro nº 1).
Al dormir nuestro cuerpo descansa, pero ¿qué pasa con nuestro cerebro?
Existe el concepto errado de que al dormir, nuestro cuerpo y mente «supuestamente» descansan. Sin embargo, no es así. Es más, durante el sueño hay modificaciones hormonales, bioquímicas, metabólicas y de temperatura, que son de enorme trascendencia para la salud de las personas.

Influye negativamente en nuestra actividad diurna.
Produce irritabilidad, falta de concentración y pérdida de memoria.
Genera un aumento de la somnolencia durante el día.
Puede provocar trastornos y alteraciones en nuestro ritmo de

¿Cómo se detecta a una persona que tiene trastornos del sueño?
En general, sufrirán de lo siguiente: irritabilidad, mal humor, falta de concentración, pérdida de memoria y tendencia a la modorra o al sueño excesivo; sobre todo, frente a situaciones aburridas o que adormecen los sentidos, como ver T.V., oír una disertación a oscuras, o manejar a grandes distancias.

¿Cómo se mide la calidad y la cantidad de un buen dormir?
Depende de cada uno. En general, hay un rango entre las 5 – 6 horas y las 9-10 horas de sueño, para la población adulta, y entre 7-8 horas, para los jóvenes. Los bebés y recién nacidos, duermen alrededor de 18 horas.
¿Cuáles son los principales trastornos del sueño?
1) Sueño Excesivo Diurno (SED): entre un 4 y un 9% de la población adulta lo padece. Puede causar serios problemas laborales, familiares, sociales, e incluso alteraciones de los sentidos; lo cuál puede provocar graves accidentes de tránsito o laborales.

2) Insomnio: afecta a más de un tercio de la población mundial. Existen dos clasificaciones: el insomnio crónico y el insomnio transitorio. Los que padecen insomnio crónico, duermen menos de cinco horas diarias durante dos meses seguidos. El insomnio agudo, o de corta duración (2 y 21 días), lo sufren la mitad de los pacientes con insomnio. Cuando hablamos de insomnio, debemos nombrar sus causas (ver recuadro nº 2).

¿Cómo diagnosticamos y tratamos los trastornos del sueño?
Para esto es importantísimo confeccionar una buena historia clínica. Llevar un «diario de sueño», algunos test psicológicos y un examen físico, junto con algunos exámenes de laboratorio. Lo ideal es tratar la causa, ya que los trastornos del sueño pueden ser síntomas de otra enfermedad. Entonces, se debe acudir a un médico especialista en medicina del sueño.

Por: Fernando Andrés Schifferli Salazar

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